California is geographically diverse and also has varied topography. The state is roughly divided into Northern and Southern California. The main topographical features of California include mountain ranges, basins, plateaus, and deserts.
The Northern California
The Northern California is formed by the 48 northernmost counties of the state. The region comprises of San Francisco Bay Area, including the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, including Mount Shasta, redwood forests, Lake Tahoe, and the northern half of the Central Valley. Along the coast, the climate varies from marine to warm Mediterranean climate, in the valley it is Continental Mediterranean climate and alpine climate zones in the high mountains. Northern California is least populated accept San Francisco bay area and Sacramento metropolitan area but it is in fact known for its high technology industries, such as software and semiconductor and also famous for clean power, biomedical, government, and finance.
The Southern California is formed by the 10 southernmost counties of the state. The southern California comprises of San Diego, Los Angeles, Orange County, and Riverside-San Bernardino and trier respective metropolitan areas. Southern California is hugely populated and is one of the most urbanized areas in the state.
It is also home to numerous industries including the film industry, entertainment industry, residential construction, military aerospace software, automotive, ports, finance, tourism, biomedical, and regional logistics industries.
The California Central Valley which is regarded as the agriculture heartland of California lies in the middle of the state and is bordered by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, in the east by the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central California is a large fertile area that lies between the coastal mountain ranges and the Sierra Nevada. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta divides the Central Valley into Sacramento Valley of the Sacramento River in the north and the San Joaquin Valley of the San Joaquin River in the south.
Mountain Ranges in California
Some of the notable mountain ranges of California include the Sierra Nevada mountain range, the Klamath Mountains, the Coastal Ranges, the Cascade Mountains, the Los Angeles Range and the San Diego Range.
The Sierra Nevada, literally translated as snowy mountains in Spanish is located in the east and covers about 430 miles from north to south. The Sierra range consists of many mountains including Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the United States. Many valleys are formed by mountain streams in the western part of Sierra. The Klamath Mountains are located in the northwestern part of California and comprises of numerous small forests and canyons. The Coastal Mountains run from the Klamath Mountains in the north to Santa Barbara. The Coastal Mountains encompass various smaller mountains, including the Diablo and Santa Cruz Mountains and also include the Napa Valley, and Salinas Valleys.
The Los Angeles Ranges are a group of small mountain ranges and lie between Santa Barbara and San Diego counties. It is also known as the Transverse Ranges as the ranges run east to west. Los Angeles Ranges include the San Bernardino, Santa Ynez, San Gabriel, and Santa Monica mountains. The San Diego Ranges, also commonly known as the Peninsular Ranges lie in the southwestern part of California, mostly in the San Diego county. San Diego Ranges include the Laguna, Agua Tibia, and Vallecito mountains and runs into the Mexican peninsula.
Forests in California
California is home to many national forests. The forest provides the natural habitat of many flora and fauna and also features some of the most endangered ecological communities. It features some of the world's most unique and rare trees, including the tallest (coast redwood), most massive (Giant Sequoia), and oldest (bristlecone pine). The major national forest of California are listed below.
The Shasta-Trinity National Forest: It is the largest National Forest in California and comprises of 5 wilderness areas, many mountain lakes and over 6000 miles of streams and rivers.
The Angeles National Forest: It is located in the Greater Los Angeles area.
The Cleveland National Forest: It is the southern-most National Forest in California.
The Eldorado National Forest: It is located in the central Sierra Nevada of California.
The Inyo National Forest: It encompasses Mono Lake, Mammoth Lakes Basin, Mt. Whitney, and the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, with 7 designated Wilderness areas.
The Klamath National Forest: It lies along the border of California and Oregon and it is one of most bio diversified forests in America.
Lake Tahoe Basin National Forest: It is located in the Sierra Nevada mountains.
The Lassen National Forest: It lies at the Crossroads where the granite of the Sierra Nevada, the Modoc Plateau, the lava of the Cascades and the sagebrush of the Great Basin merge.
Los Padres National Forest: It is located in San Francisco and extends from north to south.
The Mendocino National Forest: It lies within the eastern spur of the Coastal Mountain Range in north of San Francisco and Sacramento.
The Modoc National Forest: It lies in the extreme northeastern corner of California and a great vacation destination.
The Plumas National Forest: It is a versatile forest with pleasant climate that is located in the Sierra Nevada, south of the Cascade Range.
The San Bernardino National Forest: It varies from desert floor to alpine peaks, and also include flowering cactus.
Deserts in California
The Southeastern deserts of California are located in the Basin and Range Province. The region extends through Nevada, Oregon, and other states. The Northern portion of the Basin and Range Province consists of mainly lava plateau. The southern part consists of deserts, including the Mojave Desert and the Colorado Desert.
The topography of the Mojave desert consists of typical mountain-and-basin landscape with arid climate and bare vegetation. It is located between the Great Basin Desert to the north and the Sonoran to the south. The region is rich in borax, potash and salt and also found deposits of silver, tungsten, gold and iron. The Mojave Desert is home to some indigenous plant species of Big Sagebrush, Cactus, Desert Spanish Bayonet, Bladder-sage, Shadscale, Mojave Yucca, bursages, Creosote Bush, and Blackbush. The Colorado and Sonoran Deserts lie to the east of the peninsular ranges lie. The desert encompasses Salton sea. The Colorado desert serves as an important habitat of some unique and rare flora. The temperature in this region is higher summer daytime temperatures than higher-elevation deserts and frost is almost nil and receives rainfall in two seasons per year.
Rivers in California
Rivers in California also form the major topography of the state. The two main rivers that divide the central valley into the northern and the southern portion are the the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River. These rivers drain the Central Valley and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and flow through San Francisco Bay to join the Pacific Ocean. Some of their main tributaries are the Tuolumne River, the Pit River, and the Feather River. The largest river in California is the Eel River that is not dammed and is left in its natural undisturbed state. The other important Rivers of California are the Mojave River, the Trinity River, the Klamath River,the Colorado River, Smith River, Navarro River, and Garcia River. The two massive projects that manages the majority of the Rivers of California which are dammed are the Central Valley Project that is successfully supplying water to the agricultural central valley, and the California State Water Project that is taking a huge task in redirecting water from northern to southern California.
California is the most populous state of the United States. California had an estimated population of 38,332,521 as of 2013, which marked an increase of 2.9% since the year 2010. The population density of the state is 239 people per square mile 
. Some of the most populated cities of California are Los Angeles, San Jose, San Diego, Sacramento, San Francisco, Fresno,Long Beach, and Oakland.
California Races as of 2013: 
White alone: 73.5%
Black or African American: 6.6%
Native American or Alaska Native: 1.7%
Native Hawaiian & other Pacific Islander: 0.5%
Two or More Races: 3.7%
Hispanic or Latino: 38.4%
The major languages spoken in Arizona are English, Multilingual, Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog and Vietnamese. The religion followed in California include Christianity, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim. California has largest number of Roman Catholics, followed by Mormon population. It is one of the fastest-growing and adopted groups in the state. Asian immigrants brought in and introduced Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintō, Sikhism, and Taoism. According to U.S Census estimation, California also has the largest Muslim community in the United States.
California Population Quick Facts: 
Population, 2014 estimate: 38,805,500
Population, 2013 (April 1) estimates base: 38,431,393
Population, percent change, April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014: 4.2%
Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013: 6.5%
Persons under 18 years, percent, 2013: 23.9%
Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2013: 12.5%
Female persons, percent, 2013: 50.3%
In 2013, the Census Bureau reported California's's population as 73.5% White alone, 6.6% black or African American, 38.4% Hispanic or Latino, 14.1% Asian, 1.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, and 39.0% non-Hispanic or non-Latino white.
As of 2010 U.S Census estimation, California has the largest population of Native American consisting of the most Native American tribes, indigenous to the state or not, and Latin American Indian.
The Cherokee Tribe is the largest tribe in the state. Los Angeles/Long Beach, San Francisco/Oakland, Sacramento, and San Diego areas are home to large communities of Urban American Indians. The other important tribes includes Apache, Choctaw, Creek, Hopi, Zuni, Navajo, Blackfeet, Shoshone, Paiute, Pueblos, Cahuilla and Chumash tribes.
California has the most powerful and largest economy
in the United States and also one of the largest economies in the world. As of 2013 estimation, the gross state product was $2.050 
trillion and income per capita was $47,401 
. The major sectors of employment in California include trade, transportation, and utilities, government, professional and business services, education and health services, and leisure and hospitality. Trade is the main focus for California’s economy. California has the highest rate of poverty in the country. Agriculture is main sector and plays a major role in California's economy. The three largest agricultural products of California by value include milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes as of 2011 United States Department of Agriculture’s estimation.
Agriculture in California
California is ranked among the top in United States in agriculture. Agriculture is one of the main domains which play a vital role in the growth of the state’s economy. California’s success in agriculture lies on its fertile soil, moderate Mediterranean climate, a lengthy growing season, availability of many farming lands, the use of modern agricultural methods and technologies and extensive irrigation The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) oversees the entire agricultural activities and produces of the state of California.
California's top-ten produces for 2012 are: 
Milk — $6.9 billion
Grapes — $4.449 billion
Almonds — $4.347 billion
Nursery plants — $3.543 billion
Cattle, Calves — $3.299 billion
Strawberries — $1.939 billion
Lettuce — $1.448 billion
Walnuts — $1.349 billion
Hay — $1.237 billion
Tomatoes — $1.170 billion
California is the surplus producer of fruits, vegetables, wines, dairy products and nuts, including, grapes, cotton, flowers, lemons, artichokes, avocados, squash and oranges. Additionally, dairy products including milk and cream generate huge income for many and California is the leading producer of milk in the United States. Artichokes, olives, clingstone peaches, figs, almonds, ladino clover seed, kiwifruit, dried plums, dates, raisins, pistachios, pomegranates, sweet rice,and walnuts are commercial produces only in California and are great export items that generate huge revenues.
Livestock and poultry also contribute immensely to California’s income. Poultry is largely accepted in California and large quantities of eggs are produced each year. There are numerous bee colonies across the state and are included under livestock. Bees are important aspects which are used both for pollination and production of honey.
Industries in California
California boasts of one of the leading industrial states in the United States.
California Employment by Selected Industry as of October, 2014:
Total Farm: 404.3
Total Non-farm: 5,560.4
& Utilities: 2,860.1
Professional & Business Service: 2,465.3
Educational & Health Service: 2,402.2
Data in Thousands
California is in the top in manufacturing domain and is also doing exceptionally well in other sectors including machinery, fabricated metals, food processing, electronic and other electrical equipment, transportation equipment, apparel, industrial machinery, computers, aerospace technology, film industry, entertainment industry and many more.
Major industries in California are mainly located in the two major manufacturing hubs of Los Angeles (Long Beach–Orange County area) and San Francisco (Oakland–San Jose area).
California’s main manufacturing products are Computers and aerospace and these sectors generate huge revenue for the state.
California's film and entertainment industry (HOLLYWOOD), based primarily in Los Angeles, has been the pride of the state and generated an annual payroll of billions and is also one of the major employers of the state. California is a successful state in setting up many more motion picture industries due to its cheap land, pleasant and good all year-round climate and large natural spaces and resources. Souther Califronia is a home to many film industries.
Tourism in California
Tourism is also a principal part of California’s economy and is one of the largest employers of the state. Many plans and programs are implemented to improve California’s transportation network and accordingly enhance the tourism sector. Some of the major tourist attractions of the state include Tunnel View - Yosemite National Park, Golden Gate Bridge, Lake Tahoe, Big Sur Coastline, Disneyland, Dante's View - Death Valley, Venice Beach, Redwood National Park, SeaWorld San Diego, General Sherman.
Fast Facts on Energy
- California has two major nuclear power plants, namely Diablo Canyon and San Onofre.
- Crude oil and natural gas deposits of California are found in the Central Valley and along the coast of the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field.
- The state’s main electricity provider is Natural gas-fired power plants.
- Cities including Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have announced and accepted themselves as nuclear-free zones.
Education in California
The education system in California comprises of the public and private schools, public and private universities, colleges and high schools. The California Department of Education is the division which is responsible to assess and manage the workings of all schools, colleges and universities in the state. The department’s mission is to provide world class education and best values to the students to ensure success in education, workplace and in every spheres of life. Tom Torlakson
is the current State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Various programs and plans are implemented to enhance the standard of education and also to improve the academic success rate. Some of the initiatives and programs include Bullying and Hate Motivated Behavior Prevention
, Civic Education Initiative
, Core Reforms Engaging Arts to Educate (CREATE)
, Family Engagement Framework
, International Visitors and Official Delegations
, School Financial Emergency
, Schools of the Future Initiative
and United States Senate Youth Program
California takes pride in presenting one of the renowned research universities in the nation, the University of California
(UC). The major campuses of UC are situated in Berkeley, Los Angeles, San Diego, Davis, Irvine, Santa Cruz, Riverside, Santa Barbara, Merced and San Francisco. The University of California directly manages and administers Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the United States Department of Energy. California State University
(CSU) system has its many campuses located across California, including Long Beach State, Cal Poly, Cal State San Bernardino, Cal Poly Pomona, Cal State Fullerton, San Francisco State, Fresno State, Sacramento State, San Diego State, and San Jose State. CSU is the largest university system
in the nation. The California Community Colleges system provides many lower general courses and the students can avail the benefits of transferring their credit units are transferable to the CSU and UC systems, as well as vocational education, remedial education, and continuing education programs.
Some of the notable private colleges
include Stanford University, Loyola Marymount University, the University of Southern California (USC), Santa Clara University, the University of San Francisco (USF), Pepperdine University, the Claremont Colleges, St. Mary's College, the University of the Pacific, Thomas Aquinas College, Touro University California, Occidental College, Westmont College, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) (which administers the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA) and the Southern California Institute of Technology (SCIT). Link allAlso read: University of CaliforniaAlso read: California State University System
Sports in California
California makes an effort to incorporate sports in every individual’s life and also include more sports and sports programs in schools, colleges and universities. California is proud to present its nineteen major professional sports league franchises
, which is the highest in the nation. The major sports loved and played in California are American football, Baseball, Basketball, Ice hockey, and Soccer. The main leagues
of California include National Football League, United Football League, Major League Baseball, Arena Football League, National Basketball Association, Women's National Basketball Association, National Hockey League, Major League Soccer, and Professional Arena Soccer League. As California has many notable universities in the United states, collegiate sports programs are hugely followed and respected by many. Apart from the top academic achievements, the athletic programs of some universities , including University of Southern California, University of California, Berkeley, UCLA, Stanford University are nationally ranked. Local sports
including motorsports and auto racing are also one of the favorite recreational sports of the locals as well as the tourists. Racing events are annually hosted in the city of Long Beach. Some of the main racing events are Indy Car Series, American Le Mans Series , Auto Club Speedway, the NHRA Drag Racing Series, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, The NHRA Drag Racing Series and the AMA Supercross Series.
California Health Care
The California Department of Public Health
works efficiently to improve the health and living standards of the community by implementing several health regulation services and policies. Various divisions and sub-divisions work concurrently with the department to improve the health of the community. The main divisions include Emergency Preparedness Office, Center for Health Statistics and Informatics, Office of State Laboratory Director, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Chronic Disease and Injury Control, Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, Office of Problem Gambling, Drinking Water and Environmental Management, Center for Environmental Health, Food, Drug, and Radiation Safety, Center for Family Health, Genetic Disease Screening Program, and Center for Infectious Diseases. Hospitals
in California are well equipped with technologically advanced facilities, efficiently manned and provide 24-hour inpatient care, including medical, nursing, surgical, anesthesia, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy services, child care, maternity care, mental well being, and many more services. Almost all the hospitals in California make an effort to follow environmentally preferable practices. Learn more: California Health Care
Government of California
The Government of California
is guarded by the Constitution of California. California became a 31st state of the United States on Sept. 9, 1850. The government of California is divided into three distinct branches: the executive branch (Governor of California, Constitutionally elected officers and state agencies), the legislative branch (the House of Representatives and the Senate) and the judicial branch (Supreme Court and lower courts).
The Executive branch
of California consists of the Governor of California and the constitutionally elected Officials. Democrat, Edmund G. Brown Jr. is the current governor of California who was sworn in for a record fourth term on January 5, 2015.
California State Legislature
is the body of the state government of California which is divided into two separate assemblies, namely California State Assembly and California Senate.
Under the Constitution of California, the Judiciary branch
applies and interprets laws and regulations to ensure justice in the state. The judicial system of California is served by numerous efficient professionally trained judges and is the largest in the United States. Tani Gorre is the 28th chief justice of California, sworn in on January 3, 2011Learn more: Government of California
Transportation in California
The California Department of Transportation
is commonly termed as Caltran
s. The department overviews the entire transportation network of the state of California. California’s vast terrain and varied topography are connected by a comprehensive transportation system. Caltrans administers and manages the state’s highways, freeways, railways, airports, hospital heliports. The transportation system in California comprises of the roadways, airways, railways and the waterways.
The road transportation
in California mainly comprises of the controlled-access highways, limited-accessed highways or expressways and the highways The interstate highways of California are
I-5, I-8, I-10, I-15, I-40, I-80, I-105, I-110,I-205,I-210,I-215,I-280,I-380, I-405, I-505, I-580, I-605, I-680, I-710, I-780, I-805, I-880 and I-980. Additionally, the United States highways in California include US-6, US-50, US-95, US-97, US-101, US-199 and US-395. Air transportation
is an essential gateway of California that serves the locals and tourists from all over the world. The primary airports of California include Los Angeles International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, San Diego International Airport, Sacramento International Airport and many more.
is also one of the main transportation modes in California that serves people from all walks of life and also important for cargo transfer. The main intercity rail service is provided by Amtrak California. The Interstate Amtrak lines include the Coast Starlight, the Texas Eagle, and the Sunset Limited. Learn more: Transportation in California
Interesting Facts about California:
- The combination of blue and gold is designated as official colors in California.
- The American folk dance is called Square Dancing and encompasses squares, rounds, clogging, contra, line and heritage dances. It is a valued dance and art form genuinely originated in California.
- The official state mineral is gold.
- The official California State Silver Rush Ghost town is Calico, in San Bernardino county.
- The California State Railroad Museum is the largest railroad museum in North America.
- Death Valley is one of the hottest and driest places in the world.
- California is also commonly known as The Land of Milk and Honey, , The Golden State, The El Dorado State and The Grape State.
- California grows tonnes of grapes annually and consequently produces million gallons of wine each year.
- Mount Whitney in Califronia is the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states of the country.
- California Gray Whale is Californis'a state marine mammal.
- Eureka (I Have Found It) is the official state motto.
- Benitoite is the official state gemstone.
- California Statehood
- California Capital
- State Size
- Death Valley
- California Temperature
- California Population
- Gross State Product
- Per Capita Income
- California top 2012 Produces
- California Employment Sectors